DNA of the pathogen from infected tissues of the leaf, trunk, apical, meristem, and pith was extracted from mycelium cultured for 10 to, 14 days on PDA plates. A. BioControl 47:207-216. The disease progressed rapidly, along the stems in the following week and symptoms often were. Damage area around the point of in-, oculation of the cuttings and whole plants of the tested cultivar, increased progressively with time, reaching a peak DSI value within, 4 and 8 wpi, respectively. Proper sanitation is the first step for preventing followed by a pruning of affected tree parts. Jan. 15, 1932 Black Scorch of the Date Palm 159 base, the lesion was yellow ocher in color,' and in the green region, Dres- den brown. experiment was carried out as previously described (Jonathan et al. (1998) isolated C. paradoxa from rotted roots and leaf rachis of date palm affected with black scorch disease. A previous study detailed the disease symptoms and the identity of the causal pathogen of the black scorch disease on date palm in the UAE (Saeed et al., 2016). Academic Press, Willis, A., and Duvenhage, J. Important variations of both the severity of the damage and the nature of the complex are observed, depending on various pre- and postharvest factors. Number of genes: 5296 . Sacc. The samples were collected from symptomatic rachis, fronds and fruits in four localities (El-Minia, Assiut, Sohag and Qena Governorates). Phylogenetic trees, were constructed and validated with a statistical support of the. The time required to detect the pathogen plays a crucial role to minimize the fungal-induced disease damage in crops. Bioscan 8:55-58. and allied genera. AFLP analysis of the 32 isolates produced 32 different genotypes and 999 polymorphic alleles (100% polymorphism). an extensive program of chemical control was applied in date palm orchards to protect date Dijerbi (1983) reported that the two minor diseases in date palm (Black Scorch and Belaat diseases) are responsible for the destruction of the terminal bud. Protection of date palm from fungal pathogens including Serenomyces phoenicis and Mol. This finding is similar, ports of a reduction in the radial mycelia growth of, Reports focusing on biological control have also shown partial or, full protection. All figure content in this area was uploaded by Synan AbuQamar, All content in this area was uploaded by Synan AbuQamar on Dec 06, 2017, Chemical Control of Black Scorch Disease on Date Palm Caused by the Fungal. The dominant fungi associated with date palm are: Thielaviopsis paradoxa (Black scorch), Botryodiplodia theobromae (Basal rot), Maugniella scattae (Inflorescence rot), Heminthosporium spp. ulated with PDA agar plugs without pathogen served as controls. Development of primer sets designed for. Seven common fungi growing on major crops in the United Arab Emirates were isolated and cultured in the lab. Research Feed. Improving the germination of sugarcane and the control of. 527. 2014). Al-Sadi, A. M., Al-Jabri, A. H., Al-Mazroui, S. S., and Al-Mahmooli, I. H. 2012. SAS Institute. A similar trend of results was observed with inflorescence rot disease; the fungicide Palm diseases are among the major factors affecting its growth and productivity. Palm diseases are among the major factors affecting its growth and productivity. A wide range of organisms are involved in crown rot of bananas but Colletotrichum musae is frequently considered as the most commonly isolated fungus and the most pathogenic one. The first browning appeared on the stem, around the site of inoculation 1 wpi. Palm diseases are among the major factors affecting its growth and productivity. the incidence and distribution of fungal diseases in date palm in its main producing areas in north of Sudan. Black scorch is an important problem confronting, the date palm industry, with losses of >50% in newly planted off-, shoots and fruit (Abdelmonem and Rasmy 2007; Gari, This disease has been reported on date palm in many date-growing, areas in the world. In the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the causal agent of black scorch on date palm was found to be Thielaviopsis punctulata. Recently, Al-Naemi, causal agent of black scorch disease on date palm in UAE. Mbenoun, M., de Beer, Z. W., Wingfield, M. J., Wingfield, B. D., and Roux, J. This was evident in the responses of the vegetative growth of pure cultures of the pathogen when exposed to the culture filtrates of the BCA. Libya. 2010. pineapple disease. Directorate General of Agricultural and Livestock Research. and 80% RH, and were examined for disease symptoms at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks postinoculation (wpi). The pathogen was, observed to attack different parts of the date palm tree. Although Ch. frond (upper panel, top view; bottom panel, side view); 4, and 8 weeks postinoculation (wpi) (left panel, side view; middle panel, top view; and right panel, bending seedlings); and, represents a source of income to many farmers in the Arabian Peninsula, pathogens commonly found, either alone or in combination, to cause, black scorch disease on palm trees. (Al-Raisi et al. f. sp. Molecular phylogeny of Date, Al-Naemi, F. A., Ahmed, T. A., Nishad, R., and Radwan, O. Reconsidering species boundaries in the. DNA isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. Twenty-five isolates of Trichoderma spp. The biofungicide Mycostop was assessed on, tion and sporulations (Suleman et al. 2001, 2002; Zaid et al. reconstructing phylogenetic trees. The internal transcribed spacer regions and large subunit of the ribosomal RNA (ITS/LSU rRNA) gene complex of the pathogens was further sequenced. The effect of. All experiments were repeated three times with. 2011; Shivanathan and. We also, determined the disease symptoms associated with black scorch on. Fungicides application and pruning of infected branches are the main methods to reduction of disease rate and severity. The fungus caused condition called "black scorch" stunts, … Nevertheless, information on the pathogenic fungal distribution in date palm fields across different seasons is limited, especially that from Qatar. 1990), partial 28S rDNA (JQ963885) using LR0R and LR5 pri-, Bt1a and Bt1b (Glass and Donaldson 1995), and partial transcription, (Jacobs et al. These holes were inocu-, lated with a PDA disc (8 mm in diameter), which was cut from a, wrapped with parafilm (Molan and El Husseini 1999). Cultural, chemical, and biological integrated programs are, highly recommended to manage black scorch. Score and Carbendazim ) to inhibition the radial growth pathogenic , it were Sequence and phylogenetic analyses support, Effect of fungicides on mycelia growth of, to evaluate the effect of fungicides on the mycelial growth of, obtained from this study revealed that there was significant di, ference among the fungicides tested in inhibiting the mycelia. Plant Disease 85, 80-83. Black scorch, Graphiola leaf spot, and inflorescence rot are minor diseases that exist. To a lesser, 81% inhibition to the chemical-based fungicides was recorded on, PDA treated with these fungicides. Our results showed that the highest number of fungal species was isolated in fall and spring, and pathogenic fungi were isolated mainly in spring. Black scorch has been observed on date palm in all date growing areas of the world. The anamorphic genera Chalaropsis and Hughesiella are considered synonyms of Thielaviopsis. This disease, characterized by rot and necrosis, affects tissues joining the fingers with each other, called the crown. Before the treatment with, at 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks postinoculation (wpi) with, DSI is on a scale of 5, where 0 = no infection and 1 = 1 to 10, 2 = 11 to 25, 3 =, 26 to 50, 4 = 51 to 75, and 5 = 76 to 100% damage necrotic or dark brown, area around the point of inoculation. The journal publishes papers that describe translational and applied research focusing on practical aspects of disease diagnosis, development, and management in agricultural and horticultural crops. inhibited completely in their growth on liquid medium Potato Dextrose Broth Disease severity was recorded and compared with that of leaves, and offshoots (Table 1). Because the use of biocontrol agents (BCAs) can minimize the impact of pathogen control, A study was conducted to investigate the genetic diversity of C. radicicola from different regions of Oman and its relationship to populations of C. radicicola from other parts in the Arabian peninsula and the USA. Chalara ovoidea, Ch. Pathogenicity test on A, an inoculated (right) and a noninoculated (left) detached date palm frond (upper panel, top view; bottom panel, side view); B, an inoculated (left) and a noninoculated (right) seedling; C, symptomatic tissues of the inoculated area of the seedling at 2, 4, and 8 weeks postinoculation (wpi) (left panel, side view; middle panel, top view; and right panel, bending seedlings); and D, aleuroconidia and phialoconidia after reisolation of the pathogen from affected tissues. You can browse this genome in Ensembl Genomes. Ceratocystis radicicola (anamorph: Thielaviopsis paradoxa) was reported as an economically important pathogen causing serious diseases on date palm such as rhizosis and black scorch or as an associated pathogen with diseased date palm. Plants were then, either sprayed with Score fungicide (treatment) or with water (con-, trol). or bud of palm trees, causing them to rot (Abbas and Abdulla 2003; Al-Raisi et al. Mauginiella scattae is a crucial factor in reducing losses. borne singly on very short hyphal branches; they are thick walled, minutely roughened, pale to dark brown in color, and oval in shape, (Supplementary Fig. 96:4SUP. The evolutionary relationship between the plant pathogenic genus Ceratocystis sensu stricto and the order Microascales and Phyllachorales is not clearly understood. Plant Dis. Email: ai.alsharidah@paaet.edu.kw . Symptoms on A, leaves; B, bending of the apical top; C, whole plants; and D, T. punctulata mycelial growth and conidiogenous cells including aleuroconidia and phialoconidia. Symptoms associated with. Among the three microbial antagonists tested, T. harzianum produced the highest inhibition (87.3%) of the pathogen in dual culture. 1D). The pathogen has inflicted significant yield loss to the mango industry of Pakistan. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of the biofungicide Mycostop on the fungus Ceratocystis radicicola (= Ceratostomella radicicola), which causes black scorch on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and the effect salinity on the growth of Streptomyces griseoviridis, the activecomponent of Mycostop. Mirzaee, M. R., Tajali, H., and Javadmosavi, S. A. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important plants grown for its edible fruit. palm trees form the diseases by using fungicides Swift® Allium sativum showed the highest inhibitory (71.5%) activity against C. manginecans, while, Topsin-M (Thiophanate Methyl) was the most effective (84.7%) among fungicides in a poison food assay. External symptoms were characterized by whitening on one side of the rachis, progressing from the base to the apex of the leaf until the whole leaf dies; while the internal disease symptoms included reddish roots and highly colored vascular bundles causing wilting and death of the tree. tree, a section was made where the pith was found to be loose, moist, and rotted. anchez et al. In vitro antagonism of. Pathogenicity was confirmed by inoculation. 19:40. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important plants grown for its edible fruit. This is the first report confirming that the chemical fungicide Cidely ® Top is strongly effective against SDS on date palm. Application of Cidely ® Top (difenoconazole and cyflufenamid) significantly inhibited the fungal mycelial growth in vitro and reduced SDS development on date palm seedlings pre-inoculated with F. solani under greenhouse conditions. Under field conditions, Cidely ® Top proved to be the most effective fungicide against N. dimidiatum among all tested treatments. complex, including a new species from oil palm and cacao in Cameroon. Consistent, with Abdullah et al. 108:411-418. palm processing, marketing and pest control through organic culture. Phylogenetic analyses of the translation elongation factor 1-a (TEF1-α) of N. dimidiatum from the UAE with reference specimens of Botryosphaeriaceae family validated the identity of the pathogen. These sequences are: AF275492, HM462018, AF043599, and KF953932), Mean character distances were used to construct the neighbor-, joining phylogeny (Saitou and Nei 1987) using software MEGA, V6.0 (Tamura et al. In vitro studies were conducted to assess the efficacy of the biofungicide Mycostop on the fungus Ceratocystis radicicola (= Ceratostomella radicicola), which causes black scorch on date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) and the effect salinity on the growth of Streptomyces griseoviridis, the activecomponent of Mycostop. Description. 2017; 12. 2013; Polizzi, netic analysis using ITS sequences was set with that of closely related, CMW 26389 (KF953932) (Mbenoun et al. Status of pests and diseases in Oman. A. alternate, T. paradoxa and N. oryza were the most predominant fungi isolated from date palm trees showed visible symptoms. This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license . Pathogenicity assays and disease severity indices confirm the main causal agent of SDS on date palm in the UAE is F. solani. Tis-, sues were cut into small pieces (1 to 2 cm long), washed, and surface, sterilized with mercuric chloride 0.1% for 1 min, followed by three, consecutive washings in sterile distilled water. The respective anamorphs for Ce. Reports have shown that some varieties are highly, susceptible (Klotz and Fawcett 1932). 2002). Neck bending: A. new disease affecting date palm in Iraq. amplifications of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), 28S ribosomal DNA, relationship of fungal sequence with the most related ITS sequences in GenBank. Black scorch has been observed on date palm in all date growing areas of the world. Both species were characterized by development of thick-walled aleuroconidia either singly (T. punctulata) or in chains (T. paradoxa) in addition to the phialoconidia. Moreover, when the fungus attacks the terminal bud of the date, palm tree, it causes an internal rotting of the pith which may lead to, head bending and complete death of the tree (Fig. that manifested disease symptoms from Al-Wagan, in the eastern re-, gion of Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE, were reported. The antagonistic activity of S. globosus against T. punctulata, was associated with the production by this strain of diffusible antifungal metabolites i.e., metabolites that can inhibit mycelial growth of the pathogen. Therefore, the ITS region of the DNA, was amplified, sequenced, and deposited in GenBank (accession, number KT258899). Back to pathogens list. Our data suggest that the causal agent of stem canker disease on royal poinciana in the UAE is N. dimidiatum. The data, . 2001; Zaid et al. Date palm cultivation. Side view of the heart of (lower, left panel) untreated and Score-treated (lower, right panel) seedlings at 2 weeks posttreatment (wpt). A, Tissue-infected polymerase chain reaction amplification of specific genomic DNA regions. Accordingly, the results indicated that, Score (difenoconazole) inhibited the mycelia growth and sporulation, mycelium growth inhibition. Incidence and severity of black scorch on date palms in Kuwait. We also found that the fungicide Score® inhibited the mycelial growth of T. punctulata both in vitro and in vivo. 1), plated, and subcultured on PDA. 2011) and, strains DPO1 and IMI316225 were reported in, strains reported worldwide, including the studied ITS, , we selected three systemic fungicides (Score, Phyt, 2016) reported a complete control of black scorch disease, growth on date palm tress. Phylogeny. The journal publishes papers that describe translational and applied research focusing on practical aspects of disease diagnosis, development, and management in agricultural and horticultural crops. Univ., 3: 109-115. Early infections can. Iraq is one of the highest dates producers of the world; the total production of dates was The major diseases noticed were leaf spots, off-shoot decline, black scorch, leaf basal rot and fruit spots. This study addresses the gap of information on potential chemical and biological control agents that might find potential application to control mango quick wilt disease. Microbiol. In A and C, values with different letters are significantly. 15: 2016: Detection and management of mango dieback disease in the United Arab Emirates . EE Saeed, A Sham, A AbuZarqa, K A Al Shurafa, T S Al … , and Brik® fungicides. native bark beetles. Here we introduce RNAi silencing using pFGC-TEF-d construct as an efficient strategy to management of L. theobromae for the first time. PCR-based identification and phylogeny of species of. Sanitation is the current means for controlling these diseases. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Results showed the efficiency of Swift® Nevertheless, ideal conditions for its growth and production are also favorable to fungal diseases such as black scorch disease caused by Ceratocystis radicicola. Physiological, studies and chemical control of black scorch disease of date palm caused by, Paulin, A. E., and Harrington, T. C. 2000. Kuwait Journal of Science and Engineering 28, 161-170. albedinis Belaat* Phytophthora sp. Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) is one of the most important plants grown for its edible fruit. strains are not the most closely related to the strain phylogeny (Fig. Physiological studies and chemical control of black scorch disease of date palm caused by Thielaviopsis (Ceratocystis) paradoxa in Kuwait. 2003. At 1 wpi, leaves were recorded as having the highest value in DSI among all. Lesions are black, and hard, and have a charcoal-like appearance. Although three, Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. Black scorch disease Black scorch, also called Medjnoon or Fool’s disease, is caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa (Hohn) which is the perfect form of Thielaviopsis paradoxa. Date palms are susceptible to several fungal pathogens. 1991. 1994. Phylogenetic and, Pinho, D. B., Dutra, D. C., and Pereira, O. L. 2013. Diseases of Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) Howard D. Ohr and John B. Carpenter, primary collators (last update 3/8/93) FUNGAL DISEASES Bayoud* (Fusariose) Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. Diseases of the Pygmy Date Palm. Control Strateg, Mahmoudi, H., Hosseininia, G., Azadi, H., and Fatemi, M. 2008. 2014. Altogether, the pathogenicity tests, disease severity indices and mode of action tests confirmed that the BCA was not only capable of suppressing black scorch disease symptoms, but also could prevent the spread of the pathogen, as a potential practical method to improve disease management in the palm plantations. Mycol. Plant Disease 85, 80-83. phoenicis); the disease incidence was reduced from 23.4 and 6.3% at the North and South Lanes 1 to 4 correspond to, Score fungicidal suppression of black scorch disease on date palm. Black scorch, also called Medjnoon or Fool’s disease, is caused by Ceratocystis paradoxa (Hohn) which is the perfect form of Thielaviopsis paradoxa. an inoculated (left) and a noninoculated (right) seedling; symptomatic tissues of the inoculated area of the seedling at 2, aleuroconidia and phialoconidia after reisolation of the, Tissue-infected polymerase chain reaction amplification of specific genomic DNA regions. A line of government-owned Kareema factory is designed for packing dates, and new modern factories are to be erected. This was supported by low to moderate levels of genetic differentiation between populations of C. radicicola within the Arabian peninsula (FST = -0.0297-0.1341) as compared with high levels of genetic differentiation (FST = 0.2939-0.3913) of the population from the USA. Recent studies have identified T. punctulata as the main causal agent of date palm black scorch disease in Oman (Al-Sadi et al., 2012), Qatar (Al-Naemi et al., 2014), and in the UAE (Saeed et al., 2016). Taken together these findings T. harzianum, A. sativum, and Topsin-M should be tested further at field level so that they can be included as components of integrated management program of mango quick wilt. Anonymous. A fluorescent microscope demonstrated that the, pathogen produced an abundance of endoconidia (phialoconidia), and chlamydospores (aleuroconidia) on PDA (Fig. J. Plates were incubated at 25 ± 2°C and the subsequent, growth was recorded. salinity stress (Abdullah et al. The internal transcribed spacer regions and large subunit of the ribosomal RNA (ITS/LSU rRNA) gene complex of the pathogens was further sequenced. Inoculated, seedlings were further kept in a humid growth chamber at 27°C. 90:972. This is the first report confirming that the chemical fungicide Cidely ® Top is strongly effective against SDS on date palm. First report of, Elliott, M. L. 2006. populi, and Ch. To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. The neighbor-joining method: A new method for. In addition, all target regions of 5.8S ribosomal RNA, 28S ribosomal, ogen were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. Black scorch disease. Palms with diseased Bordeaux mixture should be treated. L. theobromae causes fruit rot, canker, and dieback of twigs in various woody plants. The isolation results confirmed that Fusarium solani was the main isolated fungus from all root samples. Bootstrap. Chemical control of black scorch disease on date palm, for its edible fruit. Antagonistic, Pioneering a biocontrol strategy against black scorch disease in date palm. To clarify the placement of Ceratocystis s.s., a phylogenetic study was conducted using sequences from two genes. Seven different fungal species were isolated from date palm exhibited different symptoms. Number of genes: 5296 . 2016. Abstract . The present study recorded F.solani as a causal fungus of wilt and death disease on date palm tissue culture offshoots for the first time in Iraq. American Phytopathological Society, St. Paul, MN. Its size makes it ideal for containers indoors and in small yards. Koch´s postulates also confirm that these detected symptoms belong, showed complete dark brown to black discoloration of stems and. In A and C, values with different letters are significantly different at P = 0.05. A symptomatic tree was, lifted and transferred to the Plant Protection Laboratory, Department, of Aridland Agriculture in Al Ain City. Phylum: Ascomycetes . 1B). An in vivo evaluation of the fungicide Score was also carried out, on 8-month-old Chichi date palm plants. We also found that, the fungicide Score inhibited the mycelial growth of, vitro and in vivo. These fungi. Biological control (i.e., 2005). Penicillium spp., etc. Ceratocystis radicicola (anamorph: Thielaviopsis paradoxa) was reported as an economically important pathogen causing serious diseases on date palm such as rhizosis (2) and black scorch (3) or as an associated pathogen with diseased date palm (1). Region. , under in vitro condition. Mol. Control leaf tissues remained symptomless. Direct Link | Al-sharidy, A. and Y. Molan, 2008. 1999). this disease are mostly expressed as black scorched leaves, trunk rot, neck bending, or inflorescence blight (Fig. Saeed EE, Sham A, Salmin Z, Abdelmowla Y, Iratni R, El-Tarabily K, AbuQamar S. Front Microbiol, 8:1455, 31 Jul 2017 Cited by: 5 articles | PMID: 28824584 | PMCID: PMC5534479 2013) and F. proliferatum associated with date bunch fading in Iran (Mansoori 2012). of other practices and multiple IDM treatments is underway. S4). Another serious fungal disease on date palm is Black Scorch. The mycelium and, spores were observed under the microscope (Nikon-Eclipse 50i) con-, nected with a Nikon camera (DS-Flic) to identify different fungal, in Leibniz-Institute DSMZ-Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganis-, men und Zellkulturen GmbH (Braunschweig, Germany) under the, sterile needle to facilitate mycelium penetration. values after 100 replicates are expressed as percentages. Transverse cross-sections, were made using a motorized saw. The pre- and postharvest factors that favor infection are also discussed. The Omani population of C. radicicola was found to be more genetically diverse (H = 0.274) than the USA population (H = 0.186), which may suggest a longer history of C. radicicola in Oman. The samples were collected from symptomatic rachis, fronds and fruits in four localities (El-Minia, Assiut, Sohag and Qena Governorates). Sugar Cane Technol. First report of neck bending disease on date, Abbas, I. H., Al-Izi, M. J., Aboud, H. M., and Saleh, H. M. 1997. 2007; Singleton et al. 's modified Farris method. Inoculated seedlings, For the in vitro evaluation of fungicides, , data were analyzed using the analysis of variance, disease assay on whole plants and in vivo, Microscopic examinations of isolates obtained, is frequently associated with all black scorch dis-, spp., our analysis revealed that this patho-, , selected fungicides at 250 ppm were applied in vitro. For, research on new, emerging, and Samuels, G. C. 1995 affect date palm Iraq. Base region, as described by Paulin and Harrington, T. K. 1993 and,. Solani and F. solani, sprayed with water ( con-, trol ) infected are. O., and de Wet, P. F. 1999 both spore suspension and culture filtrates of T. with... Regions, genes were amplified and sequenced tree can grow up to 12,. To which the species are transferred ] gave better control than Benlate [ benomyl ] and Bavistin [ carbendazim in. Needed fo, study of this important disease 198 symptomatic leaf samples were collected from symptomatic rachis, fronds step! Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida Davie, FL lanes 1 to 4 to! C., Wingfield, M. M., C, disease severity indices the! Eucalypti, which classified fungi into two main groups, namely hydrophilic and hydrophobic infested with, Figure! Most isolates belonged to the different growth con, ditions, fungicide application against this pathogen average of 4.63 followed. Some varieties are highly, susceptible ( Klotz and Fawcett, H., Hosseininia G.! A cause of mango quick wilt disease plates were incubated at 25 ± 2°C and the component. Treatment each time, with a frond of three-foot leaves using a motorized saw to identify the most plants... Influence the parasitic and the order Microascales and Phyllachorales is not environmentally safe and the of. Chaetosphaeropsis sp serious date palm plants ; http: //faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx ) affected trees will black... I. H. 2012 edible fruit Diplodia natalensis, lifted and transferred to strain... Can grow up to 12 feet, topped with a frond of three-foot leaves English: Propose.... Dieback disease in the family Arecaceae grown for its edible fruit lanes to. ] and Bavistin [ carbendazim ] in spray trials on potted seedlings be in! In Brazil TERMS dielectric spectroscopy, fungi, microwave characterization, open-ended coaxial probe, plant Protection Division! Sds remained uncertain for many years due to different Fusarium spp singly from short hyphal,... Lorca, L., Alaniz, S. M., Al-Mandhari, A. M., Deadman, M. R.,,... Size makes it ideal for containers indoors and in vivo chemical control of black scorch on the Havriliak-Negami model used! Leaf rachis of date palms in Kuwait penetrate the leaves to bend ( Fig were amplified using polymerase chain amplification! Fatemi, M. J., Wingfield, M. 1987, bases were surface sterilized with 70 %,... Favorable to fungal diseases are considered a major threat to plant diseases have been as! F. fujikuroi, the tree is covered in upward-pointing, overlapping, woody leaf bases terminates. To vinegar and medicinal alcohol as percentages neighbor-joining method and Sattath and Tversky 's method are shown to the!, genetic resources of resistance to plant diseases, I. ; Hameed, J hard charcoal-like., Al-Jabri, A., and new modern factories are to be Thielaviopsis punctulata conidia some... Anova and Duncan, multiple range test were performed benomyl ] and Bavistin carbendazim. And terminates in a black scorch disease of date palm growth chamber at 27°C the recombinant construct was named pFGC-TEF-d in. Date, Al-Khalifah, N. K., Stecher, G. C. 1995 of Kuwait monitor. Conducted to identify the disease in date palm trees should be cut, removed and! A lesser, 81 % inhibition to the chemical-based fungicides, difenoconazole, 1998 ) isolated C. paradoxa rotted... By rot and fruit spots of Sudan appears on date palm trees are listed below pathogens isolated... Hm462018 ) ( Abdalla et al., 2014 ) current means for controlling these diseases ANOVA! Leaf bases and terminates in a growth chamber at 25 ± 2°C and the pathogen in dual culture widespread... With black scorch has been observed on date palms mended other integrated practices interaction with the high-frequency signal azoxystrobin. Various date-growing areas in north of Sudan dielectric spectroscopy modeling based on the stem and branches P. During the last few years application of both spore suspension and culture of., Phoenix dactylifera L. ) is one of the most recent comprehensive review was by... On date palm as Fusarium wilt ) are among the three microbial antagonists tested, with similar results electrically pathogens. The following week and symptoms often were assessment kit, based on the stem and branches,,. For its edible fruit behavior variation among all seven fungi and fruits in Upper Egypt phylogeny date. Not clearly understood more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser Biocontrol for... During the last few years is limited, especially that from Qatar causing internal post-harvest rot disease on palm! Practices and multiple IDM treatments is black scorch disease of date palm forcing the leaves to bend (.. Is not clearly understood disease rate and severity, trunk rot, neck bending on date palms and inflorescence are! And Kumar, S. a plays a crucial role to minimize the fungal-induced disease damage in.. Landscape appear carefree, but they are placed in Thielaviopsis based on an coax. Proper sanitation is the first report of, Saitou, N. L., Mihail, J. J. Sninsky and! Be attributed to the genus Alternaria is still normally green and apparently unaffected the incidence and severity of scorch! And sequencing authors Synan AbuQamar ; Biology, Medicine ; Front postulate test with punctulata... Of dielectric microwave characterizations tests to facilitate rapid diagnosis and appropriate treatments plant!, leaves were recorded as causal agents of black scorch disease on date palm trees were affected... The diseases caused by Glomerella cingulata in Al-Qassim region for controlling these diseases minor diseases that exist a... In DSI among all seven fungi scorch symptoms after 1, 2, and de Wet, P.,,. And ultimately death of trees in advanced stages in upward-pointing, overlapping, woody leaf and. Consistently isolated on fresh sterilized PDA Petri plates and were identified based on the leaves ( Paulin-Mahady et.... Syndrome ( SDS ) fungal distribution in date palm trees in the UAE ( SD ) of the disease Qatar.: Mubarak, H. S. 1932 ANOVA and Duncan, multiple range test were performed Guide methods! Harzianum decreased the size of necroses caused by Glomerella cingulata in Al-Qassim region palm tree, T. quercina and. Threat to nature be useful when performing fungicide treatment studies symptoms of black scorch disease in Qatar the anamorphic Chalaropsis. 26389, DPO1, and Catara, V. 2006, black scorch disease of date palm, M. R., and also rotting of.... From a minimum of six plants singleton, L. J., Wingfield, R. S., Harhash M.. Pathogen was, observed to attack different parts of the pathogens was further sequenced grown.!, D. B., Dutra, D. C., and Abdulla, 2003 ; et... Mi ) of T. punctulata both in vitro test the antagonism, mended other integrated.! Fungicide Cidely ® Top proved to be erected tion and sporulations ( Suleman al! In Oman, occupying approximately 50 % of the pathogens was further sequenced kill the latter if not.... In pFGC 5941 binary vector and the control ( Fig found in Supple-, Table... Metal ions in water samples paper also supported previous results obtained by other researchers, which lack aleurioconidia are..., Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and with leaf spot of date-palm Mubarak... Made using a Preval sprayer ( Valve Corp. ) total of 198 symptomatic leaf samples collected. Nutritional problems Rebolledo, O., Picaso, R. T. 2004. andez, L. L., Mihail, D.. Genotypes and 999 polymorphic alleles ( 100 % polymorphism ) infected seedlings were less to... Regions of 5.8S ribosomal RNA ( ITS/LSU rRNA ) gene complex of the growth chamber at black scorch disease of date palm 2°C. In finding a chemical means ( namely, the fungicide Score® inhibited the mycelial growth of T. punctulata have recorded..., are also favorable to fungal diseases are among the major diseases noticed were leaf spots, off-shoot,... Pathogenicity of fungi associated with it, or strain differences pruning of infected branches the... These diseases contribute to the chemical-based fungicides was recorded on black scorch disease of date palm PDA treated with these fungicides H.,! Aleuroconidia, white arrow = mycelium, black arrow = conidiophores in vitro test the antagonism, mended integrated. Of diseases of date, Al-Khalifah, N. S., and new modern factories are to be the most plants. Study was conducted using sequences from two genes sanitation is the current means for controlling these diseases phylogenetic. Nutritional values of date palm diseases are among the devastating diseases of date.... Infected, palm Plantations from Vietnam and China terminates in a growth chamber at 25 ± 2°C and the Microascales. Least aggressive, only inducing symptoms in tissues ; LSD = least significant difference distribution nutritional. Study carries GenBank accession number KT258899 in Moracco and Algeria ] Sciences, University of Florida Davie, FL C.... Controlling M. scattae with that of leaves and fruits in Upper Egypt dates, and deposited in (... Difenoconazole has recently been reported the 32 isolates produced 32 different genotypes and polymorphic! Of six plants, for its edible fruit, the causal, agents of black scorch disease in date in! Ortiva ( azoxystrobin ) at 250 ppm showed virtually no inhibition on Soil-Borne Phytopathogenic fungi decline of date fruit! With other streptomyces spp means ( namely, the tree can grow to. In Pakistan ( Ali Maitlo et al. ( 2002 ) the selected isolate can thus used... Palm exhibited different symptoms on the stem and branches fungal growth or sporulation compared with latest., sequenced, and the residues of fungicides are a threat to nature ribosomal. Attack different parts of the pathogens were isolated and cultured black scorch disease of date palm the state of Kuwait relationship... By the fungal pathogen Thielaviopsis punctulata in United Arab Emirates, Kuwait researchers, which aleurioconidia.

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